Neuromodulation facts: sources and citations

History/evolution of neuromodulation:

Neuromodulation’s role on pain pathways:

Use of neuromodulation outside of pain relief:

Approval/requirements for neuromodulation:

TENS units:

Types of implanted neuromodulation:

Implanted neuromodulation trials:

How long implanted devices last:

Risks with implanted devices:

What SCS is used for:

Types of SCS therapy:


Dorsal root ganglion stimulation:

Intrathecal drug delivery systems:

Finding a provider: